Fort-Nieulay  Avenue Pierre Coubertin

Fort Nieulay was constructed as a defence for the city of Calais.
After the taking of Calais by the English (1346), sluices were constructed to act as water defences, and a fort was built to protect them in 1525). In case of attack the defenders of the fort could destroy the sluices, flooding the area of Calais and repelling attack.

In April and May of 1677 Louis XIV and
Vauban visited Calais. They decided to reinforce the defences of the city. Fort Nieulay was rebuilt completely astride the river with sluices that were placed inside the fort, to protect them. 
Fort Nieulay was isolated in the country. The city of Calais was a lot smaller than now, a lot of districts didn't exist, Calais itself was limited to the present Calais - North.

Fort Nieulay lost it's importance progressively, From 1815 to 1870 the fort was abandoned and deteriorated. In 1903 the fort was sold, then rented to farmers.
In 1940 at the time of the German invasion the fort was defended by a few score soldiers. They only lasted a few hours.
The ramparts of the old fort increasingly fell into decay.
The city of Calais then became owner of the fort. A big program of renovations was undertaken to, repair the battlements, fill in the ponds, build an urban park and restore the works inside.
After a lot of adventures the old fort has become a quiet, green place for walkers.